UK and Spain
Providing information for the UK and Spain
This page covers Good Health - Womens Health - Menstruation - Amenorrhoea - PMT - PMS - Toxic Shock - Vaginal Discharge - Thrush - Cystitis - Cervical Cancer - Ovarian Cysts - Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - Ovarian Cancer - Fertility - Fertility Problems - Pregnancy - Breast Feeding - Menopause - Hormone Replacement - Breast Care - Breast Cysts - Breast Cancer
There are many health issues that women encounter in life, some are to do with the natural progression of the female sex organs, and others are medical problems.
The below text is designed as a comprehensive source of information to provide you with some of the answers that you're looking for. Having said that, it should be remembered that this is only a guide and, if you have any medical concerns, you should consult your medical adviser.
Menstruation - The average menstrual cycle is about 28 days, but a cycle can be as long as 33 days or as short as 26 days : It's counted from the first day of bleeding to the last day before the next period starts.
Days 1-13 : At the beginning of the cycle, levels of the female hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, are low. Then the pituitary gland (which is in the head) releases FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), which stimulates the ovary to start to grow egg follicles which, in turn, release oestrogen. In response to the raised levels of oestrogen, the uterus lining (also known as the endometrium) starts to thicken to prepare for possible pregnancy.
Day 14 : For an average 28 day menstrual
cycle, oestrogen levels will peak at day 14. This stimulates the production
of yet more F.S.H. (follicle stimulating hormone) along with another hormone
called L.H. (luteinizing hormone). In response to the presence of these two
hormones at this time, the follicle bursts and releases the ripe egg. This is
known as ovulation.
Days 15 - 28 : The egg begins it's journey down the fallopian tube and matures into a small mass of yellow tissue (corpus luteum) which releases large amounts of a hormone called progesterone, during these days. Three days before the next menstruation begins, the corpus luteum starts to age and the amount of progesterone that is released falls. If the egg is unfertilised it's absorbed and the endometrium is shed. Period pains are often experienced at this time, as menstruation begins.
Amenorrhoea - This is the medical term for the absence of menstruation. There are two different categories - Primary - if they have never started, or Secondary - when the normal pattern of menstrual periods stops for four months or more. This condition generally means that you are not producing eggs, which is a problem if you're trying to conceive.
Symptoms of Amenorrhoea can include:
What causes amenorrhoea? - Primary - it's possibly just late puberty (average
age is between 8 and 13 years old) and in time the body will catch up. It could,
however, be a disorder of the reproductive or hormonal system, which can have an
influence on calcium levels and related conditions later in life, and so it's
worth getting checked out if you're concerned.
What can you do to help yourself? - Generally the condition is not something
to panic over, however, there are certain situations where medical advice would
Treatment of Amenorrhoea - Blood test may be taken to check the levels of
hormones at various times of the month.
Premenstrual Syndrome / Premenstrual Tension - This disorder, more generally referred to as P.M.S. (P.M.T.), affects about 75% of all women emotionally, physically and/or mentally in the days prior to menstruation (period).
Symptoms of PMS (PMT) can include:
What causes Pre-menstrual Syndrome (Pre-menstrual Tension)? - The reason for these problems is due to the falling levels of oestrogen and progesterone in the days prior to menstruation.
What can you do to help yourself? - Keep a diary of the symptoms of Pre
Menstrual Tension so you can try to predict the appropriate time to be aware of
your body, and when to implement certain strategies to help you through.
Toxic shock - Menstrual TSS (Toxic shock syndrome) can occur due to prolonged tampon exposure. It is a rare condition, and most women who are exposed to the related toxins do not develop toxic shock syndrome. One reason is that a large percentage of the population have protective antibodies against the toxins that cause T.S.S. It is believed that approximately half the cases of toxic shock syndrome are associated with tampon use during menstruation. Although scientists have recognized an association between TSS and tampon use, no firm link has been established. Research suggests that the use of some high-absorbency tampons increase the risk of toxic shock syndrome in menstruating women. This type of toxin production requires a protein-rich environment (which is provided by the flow of menstrual blood), a neutral vaginal pH (which occurs during menstruation), and elevated oxygen levels (which are provided by the tampon that is inserted into the vaginal environment). Although ulcerations have been reported in women using super-absorbent tampons, the link to menstrual TSS, if any, is unclear. This type of toxin is capable of entering the bloodstream by crossing the vaginal wall. Women can avoid the risk of contracting T.S.S. by choosing a tampon with the minimum absorbency needed to manage their menstrual flow and using tampons only during active menstruation. Alternately, a woman may choose to use a different kind of menstrual product that may eliminate or reduce the risk of menstrual toxic shock syndrome, such as a menstrual cap or sanitary towels/liners.
Vaginal Discharge - Below is some information on vaginal discharge:
Nature of the discharge: There is an increase in your normal secretion.
Nature of the discharge: Thick and white and your vulva is itchy.
Nature of the discharge: Greenish/yellow and has unpleasant smell.
Nature of the discharge: Slight discharge and your partner has sores on his
Nature of the discharge: Brown, like blood, and usually follows intercourse.
Nature of the discharge: Spotting with blood, either mid-period or following
Thrush - This is a common infection caused by a fungus (candida albicans) that is present in the digestive tract and is generally kept under control by other bacteria.
Symptoms of Thrush (candida albicans) can include:
What causes Thrush? - Normally the vagina is too acidic for thrush to thrive, and so, at some point, the conditions must have changes. It can be as simple as a course of antibiotics, or naturally low resistance after an illness, or a vaginal deodorant, which can destroy natural bacteria. It can particularly affect diabetic women, as diabetes affects the hormone levels, and also women who are on the contraceptive pill.
What can you do to help yourself? - You should see a doctor as soon as you
notice the symptoms.
Treatment of Thrush - You should see a doctor as soon as you notice the
symptoms as he will be able to prescribe you the medication (such as clotrimazole / Canestan) that will give you immediate relief and get to work on
the issue in hand straight away.
Cystitis - Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder which may be a result of an infection or bruising from energetic sex. It's a very common, annoying and inconvenient problem and most women suffer from it at some point in their lives, particularly during pregnancy.
Symptoms of cystitis can include:
What causes cystitis? - The most common cause of cystitis is the bacterium called e.coli which is normally found in the bowel and around the anus. Cystitis happens when the e.coli spreads up the urethra and into the bladder. The type of cystitis called "honeymoon cystitis" is caused by frequent and strenuous sexual intercourse, which can cause bruising to the urethra.
What can you do to help yourself? - As soon as you notice any of the symptoms
start to drink lots of fluids. You should drink at least the equivalent of a glass of
water every half hour.
Treatment of cystitis - If the self help measures above do not work you should
see a doctor.
Cervical Cancer - Behind breast cancer, cervical cancer is
the second most common female cancer, and is fast becoming more common,
particularly among young women. As there are no early symptoms it can only be
detected by routine cervical smear screening (paptest). Cervical cancer has a pre-invasive
stage in which the cancer does not spread, and because this stage can last
several years, with regular screening, the cancer can easily be detected and
treated. The cancerous tissue is removed and the area treated so that the cancer
does not spread.
Symptoms of Cervical Cancer can include:
What causes Cervical Cancer? - The lining cells of the cervix are particularly vulnerable throughout adolescence and so, it is thought that, frequent intercourse during this time, especially with various partners, may instigate the cancer process.
What can you do to help yourself? - Avoid intercourse during your adolescent years. In this day and age it has become "normal" to start sexual activity in the 'teen' years, but in response to this trend the amount of young ladies with cervical cancer has risen greatly. So the risks are clear!
It's vital that you have regular pap tests (smear tests) to check for unusual cells and catch any signs of cancer early. Remember that there are no early warning symptoms and so you must take it into your own hands to make that appointment. Why not go with a girl friend for moral support and book appointments after each other, then treat yourself to lunch out afterwards, to celebrate that you could have saved your own life and/or that of your girlfriend.
Treatment of Cervical Cancer - If abnormal cells are detected in the smear
test (paps test) a colposcopy is normally performed in outpatients department so that the
cervix can be examined by using a special microscope.
If pre-cancerous cells are found they can easily be removed under local
anaesthetic with a laser, or by freezing or burning with an electric current.
Ovarian Cysts - A cyst is a fluid-filled sac and ovarian cysts
are almost always benign. However, there are two types of ovarian cysts that will
be mentioned below: functional cysts and dermoid cysts.
Symptoms of ovarian cysts can include:
Treatment of ovarian cysts - An internal and external examination will help to
determine the presence and approximate size of an ovarian cyst.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - Polycystic ovaries are benign cysts of the ovary found in 15 to 20 percent of women.
Symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome can include:
What causes polycystic ovaries? - The exact cause is not known. It's thought that it's a hormonal imbalance, as the ovary seems to produce an excessive amount of male hormones, however, it's not known whether this is the cause of the problem or a consequence of the condition.
polycystic ovarian syndrome - Internal examinations.
Ovarian Cancer - In rare situations an ovarian cyst (a fluid-filled sac) may be malignant. There is still a lot of investigation into the cause of malignant ovarian cysts, but as yet an exact reason is not known. It is thought to be partly genetic, but also has something to do with there being times in a woman's life when the ovaries are 'resting'. For example, when women have used the contraceptive pill, or have been pregnant, or have taken HRT for several years, and/or had a late start to their periods with an early menopause, they have had significant periods in their life when ovulation has been suppressed. All of these situations may protect women against ovarian cancer.
Symptoms of ovarian cancer can include:
Treatment for ovarian cancer - Malignant cysts need more thorough surgery than
benign ovarian cysts, depending on the type of tumour found. The operation will
be to remove the whole tumour and any deposits.
Fertility - This is the term generally used to describe the ability to have a baby. A woman's age is a significant factor in determining her fertility: she reaches her peak at about the age of 24, and eggs decline in quality with increasing age. There is a marked decline after the age of 30 and it is rare, however not impossible, for a woman to conceive after the age of 50. Even with normal fertilization, the changes in the uterine lining during the premenopausal years may not be as ideal for the egg and it will have a lower chance of survival.
Charting your fertility: The sort of things that you should chart are:
Fertility Problems - Becoming pregnant is usually one of the great joys in a women's life, and therefore it is understandable that the failure to be able to do so can be a huge trauma. Infertility mean the inability to be able to conceive or bear a child. Very few people are truly infertile, however, a much higher number of women are sub-fertile (they have difficulty conceiving). In general, infertility problems lie in equal number with men and women and so, for investigation purposes, the co-operation of both partners is necessary.
Fertility problems can include:
What can you do to help
yourself? - Chart your menstrual cycle for at least 3 to 6 months so that you
are able to see a pattern and the exact problem can be diagnosed quicker. Use
the fertility charting tips above to gather the vital information that will
greatly assist your medical advisor.
Treatment of fertility problems -
This will depend on what is discovered to be the problem.
Establishing the length of your pregnancy - Once pregnancy
is confirmed a due date will be establish, this is also know as the EDD (estimamted
date of delivery). Pregnancy lasts 280 days (40 weeks or 9 months and 1 week),
which is counted from the first day of your last period, or 38 weeks after
ovulation and conception. The day of birth is unlikely to be exactly to the day,
but is more likely to be within 2 weeks either before or after the E.D.D. The
length of incubation for the unborn baby can depend on the maturity of the baby
and the length of the woman's normal menstrual cycle.
your baby grows
The Second Month
The Third Month
The Fourth Month
The Fifth Month
The Sixth Month
The Eighth Month
The Ninth Month
during pregnancy - To eat well during pregnancy you only need about 300 extra
calories a day, and those calories should come from nutritious foods so they can
help your baby's growth and development. It's considered average to gain 25 to
35 pounds during your pregnancy, and the general way that this weight gain is
made up is set out below:
Weight gain during pregnancy can vary greatly, and factors such as how many
babies you are having, or if you were over weight or under weight before
pregnancy, all have an effect on rate in which you gain weight. When you're
pregnant, what you eat and drink is the main source of nourishment for your
baby, and the link between what you consume and the health of your baby is much
more important than once thought.
When you're pregnant, there are some foods that it's important to avoid and
which can be life-threatening to an unborn baby, or may cause birth defects or
miscarriage. Foods you'll want to steer clear of include:
Giving birth - Around the 38th week (sometimes before), you'll need to be listening carefully to your body, and be on the lookout for signs that it's getting ready for giving birth. You may start to feel signs and symptoms for several days, or it may only start the day or night before. Probably you'll have a tugging feeling low down in your tummy and pain in your hips and pelvic area. You may feel a little queasy, but if so try to eat some carbohydrate-based snacks to keep you going. These are all symptoms of hormonal changes, and marks the beginning of a chain reaction leading to the start of labour. It's the baby itself who puts the birth process in motion by secreting a hormone called hypophysary, causing the mother's progesterone levels to plummet. This, in turn, leads to the release of the woman's hormone oxytocine, which triggers contractions.
Mucus, which has plugged the neck of the cervix during your pregnancy, may become loose and you could discover this on one of your many trips to the toilet. This is also called a 'show', which can happen any time from several days to a few hours before labour. Remember there's no set timetable for these things, every woman's body is different. Under the effects of the birth-inducing hormones, the muscles of the uterus contract at regular intervals (contractions); this can feel very similar to period pains. Contractions will begin by being far apart and become progressively closer together as labour advances and the cervix dilates and thins out in preparation for the baby's passage through the birth canal. At first you may not feel any pain at all, just an uncomfortable feeling in your abdomen or lower back and a hardening of your bump when you touch it. But bit by bit, the pain will kick in and become more noticeable. You'll be able to feel the muscles in your womb tightening, then relaxing in a similar way to period pain as it comes in waves. It's a good idea, where possible, to take a relaxing bath to ease the pain and then get ready to leave for the hospital.
Take note of how much time passes between your contractions. They can start off
an hour apart 48 to 24 hours before the birth, but once they are 15 or 20
minutes apart, you should think about calling the hospital. You should be aware
that things usually move faster for a second birth.
When you arrive at the hospital, you'll be examined by the midwife to see how dilated your cervix has become and to check the position of the baby. Your blood pressure and temperature will be monitored and your heart rate and that of your baby will also be measured. An electronic monitor will be attached to your belly, to monitor the baby's heartbeat so that medical staff can detect any suffering or distress, enabling them to take action in an emergency, i.e. by performing a caesarean.
If you have planned an epidural, an anaesthetist will come and see you shortly after your arrival at hospital. When you reach around 5cm dilation (sometimes a little more), he will numb your spinal area and inject an anaesthetic. A very fine catheter will be left in place so that more drugs can be injected if need be and you won't feel anything below the waist from then on.
As you move closer to the birth, your contractions will get closer together, coming every few of minutes. They may start 24 hours or more beforehand, but the cervix usually takes around eight hours to dilate sufficiently for a first baby, generally speaking, between five and 15 hours. If you go to the hospital before you're more than 3 or 4cm dilated (this marks the beginning of the active stage of labour), you'll probably be sent home again. If you've already been in labour for a long time, you may be injected with hormones to speed things up a little.
There is sometimes a lull between the end of the first stage and the beginning of active labour, which gives both you and your baby a chance to rest. By the time the contractions are two minutes apart, the baby will have moved down into the pelvis and you will be able to feel the pressure between your legs. The baby's head should engage, unless he is in a breech position (feet first) and it will start moving down the birth canal with your contractions, but don't worry if it slips back up after each one. At first, the baby will be facing backwards, slightly bent forwards and on its side. Once the baby is well into the vagina, the baby's head will change position once again so it's facing downwards. It is at this point you may feel the urge to push from the pressure on your perineum; this is a natural reflex which quickens delivery. Once the midwife can see the head ('crowning') you will probably feel a hot, stinging sensation. One more push should be enough and the midwife may ask you to pant through the final stage so that the baby is born more gently, this also reduces the risk of tearing.
Ten to 20 minutes after giving birth, lighter contractions will begin again, to push the placenta out. Your midwife will feel your tummy to make sure that it is contracting strongly enough for the placenta to come away from the wall of your womb and be delivered through the vagina, she may help it along a little by pushing. It usually takes a few minutes, but can take up to an hour and most women are pleasantly surprised by how easy it feels compared to the birth itself. After it has come out, it will be carefully checked to make sure there is nothing left behind which can cause infection.
If you have had to have stitches the area will be painful for a week or so afterwards
and they'll take around a month to heal, but again, it depends on each woman.
You may find it uncomfortable to sit down during this time, so experiment with
cushions and pads to find a comfortable sitting position. There are several
things you can do to aid the healing process and ease the discomfort:
Sometimes birthing instrument assistance is necessary during
delivery, for example, when you may be too tired to push, when the baby is very
large and therefore harder to deliver, or
when your baby is in distress or in a breech position.
The first thing that your baby will do is cry. It's his first sign of life and merely a reaction to the air hitting his lungs for the first time. In turn this opens the pulmonary sacs, getting rid of any remaining amniotic fluid. This chain reaction will bring the blood into his lungs, kick-starting heart and lung circulation so that it's respiratory system starts working.
Your newborn will instinctively look for his mother's breast (the burrowing instinct) and if you put your nipple in his mouth, you should see that your baby will suck instinctively. Putting your baby to the breast immediately after birth is not only a good start to the bonding process, but helps stimulate your milk production. What he will be drinking at this stage is colostrums, which is rich in the nutrients and antibodies he needs after birth.
As soon as he is born, the midwife will clean any fluid from his nose, mouth and eyes. Once the cord is cut, it will be carefully bandaged, and later on you'll be told how to care for the umbilical stump, which should dry up and fall off within a couple of weeks. Basic medical checks will be carried out to check your baby's heartbeat and reflexes. The baby will be wiped to remove the last of the vernix coating, which protected him in your tummy.
Breast feeding - Your breast milk contains the perfect balance of nutrients for your baby, and the antibodies in breast milk will boost your baby's immune system. It's also easier for your baby to digest breast milk than baby formula milk, and so there's less chance of indigestion or intolerance problems. In addition to this, breast feeding also naturally helps you to loose weight quicker. The benefits of breast-feeding your baby are clear, but breast-feeding isn't always easy. You'll need practice and patience, and you may need to ask for help (early support is often the key to breast-feeding success), remember that it is possible, even if it is to varying degrees. The first few times you breast-feed your baby, possibly in hospital, don't be scared to ask for help, after all it's a new skill that you need to learn and then perfect. The problems are often to do with yours and/or your baby's position, it's a question of technique and de-stressing, and you'll find a way that's good and comfortable for you and your little one. It's also worth remembering that milk can take a few days to start flowing properly, so keep trying as this will speed things up: you can't expect it to work well if you don't keep sending the right messages to the brain and breast: keep trying and keep the faith.
Some helpful tips - Don't bend over or lean forward to bring your breast to your baby. Instead, cradle your baby close to your breast. Sit in a chair that offers good arm and back support. Support yourself with pillows if needed. Or lie on your side with your baby on his/her side, facing you. When you're settled, tickle your baby's lower lip with your nipple. Make sure your baby's mouth is open wide so that it can take in part of the areola (the darker area around the nipple). The nipple should be far back in the baby's mouth, and the baby's tongue should be cupped under your breast. Listen for a rhythmic sucking and swallowing pattern. If you need to remove the baby from your breast, first insert your finger into the corner of your baby's mouth to release the suction. Let your baby nurse from the first breast thoroughly, until the breast feels soft (usually around 15 to 20 minutes). Then try burping your baby on your lap or over your shoulder. After that, offer the other breast. If your baby is still hungry, it'll latch on. If not, make a note of which breast your used and start the next breast-feeding session with the other breast (the full one). If your baby pauses during breast-feeding to gaze at you or to look around the room, don't pressure your baby to take more milk. Instead take advantage of this special moment and the opportunity to bond with your baby. When your baby is latched on successfully, you'll feel a gentle pulling sensation on your breast, not a pinching or biting sensation on your nipple.
How often do I feed my baby? For the first few weeks, most newborns breast-feed every two to three hours around-the-clock. It's intense, but frequent breast-feeding sessions help stimulate your breasts to produce the amount of milk required. Watch for early signs of hunger, such as stirring and stretching, sucking motions and lip movements. Crying is a more obvious sign of hunger which comes shortly after the first signs. Get comfortable and ready for a feed. In contrast, if you have a tired baby or a baby who doesn't ask to be fed, you may need to wake then every three hours for feeding. If you just let them sleep they can get into a negative pattern where they don't have the energy to wake and cry because they're not getting enough food. Babies can easily loose weight and essential body fats if this happens, and so the advice is not to let newborns sleep more than 3 hours without feeding.
Take care of your nipples - After each feed either let the milk dry naturally on your nipple or gently pat your nipple dry. Help to keep your nipples dry between feeds by changing bra pads often. It's advisable to keep soap, shampoo and other cleansers away from your nipples, so just wash them with clean water. Sometimes nipples can become dry or cracked, if this happens try an ointment containing lanolin or rub olive oil or expressed milk on your nipples.
Healthy choices for a breast feeding mother - Your health
is just as important when you're breast-feeding as it was when you were
Menopause - Strictly speaking menopause is your last menstrual period, but you only become aware of this when you've not had a period for 1 year. The average age for menopause is 51, although it's not unusual to experience it during your early 40s or mid 50s.
menopause - There are three stages of menopause:
What causes the menopausal symptoms? - Nearly all of the symptoms of the menopause can be explained by the decreasing levels of oestrogen in your blood. The decline in monthly periods is just a symptom of a decline in the production of female hormones, in particular oestrogen, by your body. The process that started at puberty, with the first period and a change in your physical shape, now comes to an end as ovarian activity slows down and stops, and you fail to ovulate.
Treatment for the menopause - Menopause is not an illness or condition, but a natural progression for some of the sexual organs. However, some women seem to suffer more than others, and so, depending upon the severity of your symptoms, a doctor may recommend that you consider H.R.T. (hormone replacement therapy).
Replacement Therapy - HRT is the most effective way to relieve menopausal
symptoms. It works essentially by replacing the hormones that the body losses:
oestrogen and progesterone.
Natural remedies -
complementary therapies, such as yoga, herbalism, aromatherapy,
homeopathy and massage, all offer treatments for menopausal symptoms.
Breast Care- Knowing your breasts is the first stage of breast care, and so regular self examinations are a vital part of looking after yourself.
When should you do breast self-examination (BSE)? - It's recommended that you do your self examination at the same time each month, ideally in the week after your period, so that you have a good and true comparison. Having said this, it's also important that you notice the changes in your breasts throughout the menstrual cycle, and so you may prefer to examine them every two weeks. B.S.E. should not become obsessive or regimented, but it should be regarded as a simple and quick procedure that will slot into your normal routine.
How to do BSE (Breast Self Examination) - There are two elements to breast
self-examination: looking and feeling. You'll need a warm place where you will
have a comfortable level of privacy and where you'll not be interrupted.
Concentric circles / Circle pattern - Start with a big circle around the outside
of the breast, making smaller circles with your fingers as you go around the
breast. Work inwards until you reach the nipple.
After you have made several checks of your breasts over as many months you will be able to recognise if any changes happen. If, on a self examination, you notice a lump or any other differences in the their appearance you should make an appointment with your doctor for an examination. Remember, that there is a logical reason for most breast lumps, and even those that are diagnosed as cysts are generally found to be benign. Having said that, if you do nothing about it you are likely to worry yourself more and more. The advice is therefore to get it checked out, with a second opinion, where necessary, so that you are in control and aware of the facts of the situation, and not making up an uninformed story in your head.
Breast Cysts - Cysts in the breast are fluid filled sacs similar to blisters buried in breast tissue.
Symptoms of breast cysts - When you feel a cyst that's near to the surface you can usually detect its smooth outline and you may even be able to bounce it between two fingers as you push the fluid from side to side. However, if the cyst is buried deep in the breast tissue it will feel like a hard lump. In general, this affects women in their 30s, 40s and 50s, and quite often cysts appear almost overnight.
Treatment of breast cysts - Although a diagnosis of a cyst is possible by a physical examination, most breast specialists would confirm this with an ultrasound, and possibly a fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is both a treatment and diagnosis for breast cysts. A fine needle is passed into the breast and the cyst is drained and subsequently disappears. This procedure is generally performed in a breast clinic with the guidance of ultrasound, without the need for a local anaesthetic. The content of the cyst can vary greatly in colour, however, if there are traces of blood in the fluid it will be sent for analysis. Having said this, medical records show that the chance of a breast cyst being cancerous is minute.
Breast Cancer - Cancer of the breast need not be fatal. Only one breast lump in ten ever turns out to be cancerous and, of those that do, a considerable number are of the non-invasive type - that is, they do not spread beyond their place of origin and therefore cannot kill. A breast cancer diagnosis is obviously a life changing moment, however, the more informed that women is, the better their chance of beating the disease with a positive, strong and balance mind and attitude.
Below are examples of symptoms of breast cancer that should be medically investigated if noticed:
It should, however, not be forgotten that, just because you have noticed that you are suffering from one of the above symptoms, you don't automatically have breast cancer, and you should try not to panic. It is, however, very important that cancer is ruled out through medical examinations, test and further investigation by a professional.
Protection from breast cancer - There are several factor that can alter the risk
factors in developing breast cancer: family history, hormones, menstruation, and
pregnancy, are the main ones.
of breast cancer - This can obviously vary greatly depending upon the stage and
severity of the cancer. The types of treatment can include:
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